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Self-medication is an important pillar of healthcare

… and as with treatment prescribed by a doctor, it should be undertaken on the basis of the available evidence. Evidence for Self-Medication (EfSM) presents compact reviews of relevant studies on OTC medicines and active substances in order to enable pharmacists and other healthcare professionals to provide the best possible – and evidence-based – advice on self-medication. 


All EfSM articles have been peer-reviewed. They are available in German and English, and some of them in other languages ​​as well.

Meta-analysis and narrative review confirm the benefit of essential phospholipids in non-alcoholic …

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), also known as metabolic associated fatty liver disease or MAFLD, is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide. Although NAFLD is associated with metabolic risk factors, up to 40% of patients with NAFLD are not obese but can still be considered metabolically unhealthy. Current treatment recommendations for NAFLD focus on lifestyle interventions (weig ...

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Author: Lorena Petcu, MD and Branko Popovic, MDEFSM: 2022;2:220121DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0121Date: 08.07.2022

Daily intake of Panax ginseng extract (G115®) supplemented with vitamins and minerals reduces …

Fatigue negatively impacts quality of life even in otherwise healthy individuals. Recent systematic reviews provide mechanistic plausibility for these effects. In addition, a recent study demonstrates that a combination of vitamins, minerals and Panax ginseng root dry extract (G115®) improves various domains of fatigue in real life.

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Author: Anne-Laure Tardy, PhD and Lionel Noah, PhDEFSM: 2022;2:220115DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0115Date: 24.06.2022

Real-world data support the use of essential phospholipids in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide, as are the long-term risks to health of the affected. Alongside changes in lifestyle and diet, pharmacotherapy is the third pillar of treatment of NAFLD. Real-world data provide evidence of the high value of essential phospholipids in NAFLD treatment and the importance of adherence during long-term therapy.

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Author: Beata Cywińska-Durczak, MD and Branko Popovic, MDEFSM: 2022;2:220108DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0108Date: 09.06.2022

Probiotics: quality matters

Probiotics are a generally safe treatment option and have been evaluated positively for several conditions by the Cochrane Collaboration. However, they must have adequate compositional quality and be able to persist in the gut to be efficacious and safe.

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Author: Paolo Pellegrino, MD and Marcos Perez III., MDEFSM: 2022;2:220086DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0086Date: 10.04.2022

High compliance and treatment satisfaction with essential phospholipid treatment of patients with …

There are numerous randomized controlled studies showing that the intake of essential phospholipids (EPL) can reduce steatosis and improve liver function parameters. Based on these studies EPL are named in several national guidelines as one recommended treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A retrospective analysis of three observational studies has now investigated the extent to ...

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Author: Leonid Lazebnik, MD, PhD, Dr. Med. Sci., Chavdar Pavlov, MD, PhD, Dr. Med. Sci., Kirill M Starostin, MD and Branko Popovic, MDEFSM: 2022;2:220082DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0082Date: 10.04.2022

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Featured article

Less exhausted due to ginseng?

In an open-label study, a combination of vitamins, minerals and Panax ginseng root dry extract could improve various domains of fatigue in otherwise healthy persons.

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