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Self-medication is an important pillar of healthcare

… and as with treatment prescribed by a doctor, it should be undertaken on the basis of the available evidence. Evidence for Self-Medication (EfSM) presents compact reviews of relevant studies on OTC medicines and active substances in order to enable pharmacists and other healthcare professionals to provide the best possible – and evidence-based – advice on self-medication. 


All EfSM articles have been peer-reviewed. They are available in German and English, and some of them in other languages ​​as well.

Zinc and Bacillus clausii: a promising combination to improve immunity in children?

Dietary administration of zinc and use of probiotics can strengthen the immune system in humans, including children. This may lead to fewer and shorter respiratory tract infection episodes. Whether the combination of zinc and probiotics exerts synergistic effects remains to be tested.

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Author: Dorothea M. Greifenberg, PhD and Marcos Perez III., MDEFSM: 2022;2:220084DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0084Date: 10.04.2022

High compliance and treatment satisfaction with essential phospholipid treatment of patients with …

There are numerous randomized controlled studies showing that the intake of essential phospholipids (EPL) can reduce steatosis and improve liver function parameters. Based on these studies EPL are named in several national guidelines as one recommended treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A retrospective analysis of three observational studies has now investigated the extent to ...

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Author: Leonid Lazebnik, MD, PhD, Dr. Med. Sci., Chavdar Pavlov, MD, PhD, Dr. Med. Sci., Kirill M Starostin, MD and Branko Popovic, MDEFSM: 2022;2:220082DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0082Date: 10.04.2022

Real-world evidence for beneficial effects of essential phospholipids in patients with …

Essential phospholipids (EPLs) belong to the group of hepatoprotective agents and are recommended in the Russian guideline for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A large-scale observational study now confirms this recommendation based on treatment satisfaction, improvement of ultrasound parameters and normalisation of liver enzyme levels.

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Author: Igor Maev, MD, PhD, Dr. Med. Sci., Chavdar Pavlov, MD, PhD, Dr. Med. Sci., Kirill M Starostin, MD and Branko Popovic, MDEFSM: 2022;2:220080DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0080Date: 10.04.2022

Probiotics: quality matters

Probiotics are a generally safe treatment option and have been evaluated positively for several conditions by the Cochrane Collaboration. However, they must have adequate compositional quality and be able to persist in the gut to be efficacious and safe.

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Author: Paolo Pellegrino, MD and Marcos Perez III., MDEFSM: 2022;2:220086DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0086Date: 10.04.2022

A novel combination reduces objective measures and subjective stress perception

Reducing harmful stress is a key challenge to preserve well-being. A recent, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in moderately stressed healthy adults ( NCT03262376; 25/0817) demonstrates beneficial effects of a combination of magnesium, B vitamins (B6, B9, B12) and rhodiola and green tea extracts against objective and subjective indicators of stress. It was more ...

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Author: Lionel Noah, PhDEFSM: 2022;2:220041DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0041Date: 09.03.2022

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Featured article

Caffeine – stimulating, aromatic, safe

Good news for coffee drinkers: For healthy adults life-long consumption of up to 400 mg caffeine daily can be considered safe according to the European Food Safety Authority.

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