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Self-medication is an important pillar of healthcare

… and as with treatment prescribed by a doctor, it should be undertaken on the basis of the available evidence. Evidence for Self-Medication (EfSM) presents compact reviews of relevant studies on OTC medicines and active substances in order to enable pharmacists and other healthcare professionals to provide the best possible – and evidence-based – advice on self-medication. 


All EfSM articles have been peer-reviewed. They are available in German and English, and some of them in other languages ​​as well.

Metamizole: A comprehensive approach to its benefit-risk profile

Metamizole is a drug with many years of use in some countries, and a large number of patients are exposed to its pharmacologic effects. The safety assessments have been done decades ago; therefore, it is worth summarizing the current state of knowledge of its benefit-risk profile.

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Author: Waltraud Stromer, PhD and Mariana Palladini, PhDEFSM: 2022;2:220130DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0130Date: 02.11.2022

Circadian rhythm and its potential influence on gut motility

The gastrointestinal system exhibits circadian fluctuations in activity that are under control of central and peripheral mechanisms. Disturbance of such rhythms may be associated with symptoms like constipation. Available evidence shows that stimulant laxatives such as bisacodyl can act synchronized on circadian colonic fluctuations helping to restore physiological gut rhythms.

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Author: Robert Lange, PhD and Sabine Landes, PhDEFSM: 2022;2:220144DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0144Date: 12.09.2022

Self-Healing concept for musculoskeletal pain management: An evidence-based review

International guidelines are commonly integrating complementary and integrative approaches into the management of musculoskeletal pain. This improves overall well-being while concomitantly reducing the reliance on conventional pharmacological treatments and the associated risk of side effects.

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Author: Bill Giannakopoulos, PharmD, Hayet Kechemir, MD, Mohamed Amessou, PhD and Iva Igracki Turudic, MDEFSM: 2022;2:220130DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0130Date: 21.08.2022

Meta-analysis and narrative review confirm the benefit of essential phospholipids in non-alcoholic …

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), also known as metabolic associated fatty liver disease or MAFLD, is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide. Although NAFLD is associated with metabolic risk factors, up to 40% of patients with NAFLD are not obese but can still be considered metabolically unhealthy. Current treatment recommendations for NAFLD focus on lifestyle interventions (weig ...

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Author: Lorena Petcu, MD and Branko Popovic, MDEFSM: 2022;2:220121DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0121Date: 08.07.2022

Daily intake of Panax ginseng extract (G115®) supplemented with vitamins and minerals reduces …

Fatigue negatively impacts quality of life even in otherwise healthy individuals. Recent systematic reviews provide mechanistic plausibility for these effects. In addition, a recent study demonstrates that a combination of vitamins, minerals and Panax ginseng root dry extract (G115®) improves various domains of fatigue in real life.

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Author: Anne-Laure Tardy, PhD and Lionel Noah, PhDEFSM: 2022;2:220115DOI: 10.52778/efsm.22.0115Date: 24.06.2022

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Featured article

Less exhausted due to ginseng?

In an open-label study, a combination of vitamins, minerals and Panax ginseng root dry extract could improve various domains of fatigue in otherwise healthy persons.

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