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Self-medication is an important pillar of healthcare

… and as with treatment prescribed by a doctor, it should be undertaken on the basis of the available evidence. Evidence for Self-Medication (EfSM) presents compact reviews of relevant studies on OTC medicines and active substances in order to enable pharmacists and other healthcare professionals to provide the best possible – and evidence-based – advice on self-medication. 


All EfSM articles have been peer-reviewed. They are available in German and English, and some of them in other languages ​​as well.

Promoted to the highest evidence class: meta-analysis supports the evidence for EA 575® in treating…

In self-limiting diseases such as acute respiratory infections, patients primarily expect relief of their symptoms, the aim being to reduce suffering and thus improve their quality of life. The results of a meta-analysis of two studies conducted in line with recognized scientific standards show that the positive effects of the dry ivy leaf extract EA  575® are visible and subjectively noticea ...

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Author: Dr Lukas Uebbing and Dr Simon BraunEFSM: 2023;3:230041DOI: 10.52778/efsm.23.0041Date: 17.10.2023

Bacillus clausii's protective and restorative mechanisms in PPI-induced gut imbalance using SHIME …

Long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) may lead to gut flora imbalance, which may be restored using probiotics. The study demonstrated the probiotic effects of B. clausii on gut microbiota health following PPI-induced dysbiosis using the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem® (SHIME) model. The probiotic specifically improved microbial diversity and butyrate levels, among ot ...

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Author: Zefferino Righetto, Daniel Marquez and Marcos Perez III, MDEFSM: 2023;3:230034DOI: 10.52778/efsm.23.0034Date: 05.10.2023

Perceived effectiveness and increased quality of life after Macrogol 4000 use in patients with …

With a prevalence of 14 – 30% in Spain, constipation impacts quality of life (QoL) and general well-being in the affected population. A survey conducted through Spanish pharmacies among 100 consumers who purchased Macrogol  4000 to alleviate constipation symptoms, evaluated their perception on QoL improvement and effectiveness on constipation symptoms. After 14 days of treatment, a ...

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Author: Georgina Logusso, Nuno Correia, Alexia Aran and Maria MilitaoEFSM: 2023;3:230030DOI: 10.52778/efsm.23.0030Date: 25.09.2023

Real-world data demonstrate added value of cineole over nasal spray monotherapy for rhinosinusitis

The efficacy of 1,8-cineole in treating acute rhinosinusitis has been repeatedly demonstrated in randomised-controlled double-blind trials [1, 2]. Now, a non-interventional trial under everyday conditions has shown that significantly greater improvements in quality of life can be achieved when taking cineole capsules – on their own or combined with other drugs – than with monotherapy using deconge ...

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Author: Dr. Simon Braun and Dr. Lukas UebbingEFSM: 2023;3:230028DOI: 10.52778/efsm.23.0028Date: 18.09.2023

Safety of fexofenadine as over-the-counter treatment for allergic rhinitis in Italy 

Switches of oral antihistamines (OAHs) from prescription drug to over-the-counter (OTC) status may raise safety concerns due to misuse or abuse, as seen with first-generation antihistamines. A real-world study by Carnovale et al. [1] showed no difference in number of adverse events after switching second generation OAHs to OTC, indicating a similar safety profile and supporting the use of larger p ...

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Author: Marina Volonté, DVM, Mohamed Amessou, PhD, MBA and Maria Chiara Uboldi, PhDEFSM: 2023;3:230023DOI: 10.52778/efsm.23.0023Date: 10.09.2023

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Featured article

Real-world data demonstrate added value of cineole over nasal spray monotherapy for rhinosinusitis

In rhinosinusitis, taking cineole capsules on their own or combined with other drugs can improve quality of life better than monotherapy with decongestant nasal sprays.

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